• This stage has been defined as the quiescent stage subjected to the development of Adult/ Imago.
  • There are two broad divisions of Pupa in class Insecta based upon presence and absence of functional mandibles:
    • Decticous Pupa
    • Adecticous Pupa


  • Articulating mandibles are present that helps in tearing the pupal case or cocoon.
  • Example- Mecoptera [Scorpionflies], Trichoptera, Neuroptera


  • Articulating mandibles are absent.
  • Adecticous pupa further classified as follow:
    • Exarate Pupa
    • Obect Pupa
    • Coarctate Pupa


  • Appendages such as antenna, legs wings are not encapsulated and set over hang or obtrude.
  • Example- Apis (Honeybee) and other Hymenoptera and Coleoptera.
Diagram: Exarate Pupa


  • Appendages are wisely encapsulated.
  • Example- Characteristically found in order Lepidoptera.
  • *In case of Moths, caterpillar spin cocoon prior to transform into pupa, that comprises of salivary secretions or setae.
Diagram: Obtect Pupa


  • In case of House fly, last larval stage skin undergoes hardening process and forms case called Puparium, inside which exarate pupa forms. This type of Pupa is known as Coarctate pupa.
Diagram: Coarctate Pupa


  • Mosquito pupa is termed as tumbler.
  • It is an inactive stage even though floats freely under water surface showing jerking and tumbling motion. It takes oxygen via trumpets.
Diagram: Tumbler Pupa

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