- This stage has been defined as the quiescent stage subjected to the development of Adult/ Imago.
- There are two broad divisions of Pupa in class Insecta based upon presence and absence of functional mandibles:
- Decticous Pupa
- Adecticous Pupa
- Articulating mandibles are present that helps in tearing the pupal case or cocoon.
- Example- Mecoptera [Scorpionflies], Trichoptera, Neuroptera
- Articulating mandibles are absent.
- Adecticous pupa further classified as follow:
- Exarate Pupa
- Obect Pupa
- Coarctate Pupa
- Appendages such as antenna, legs wings are not encapsulated and set over hang or obtrude.
- Example- Apis (Honeybee) and other Hymenoptera and Coleoptera.
- Appendages are wisely encapsulated.
- Example- Characteristically found in order Lepidoptera.
- *In case of Moths, caterpillar spin cocoon prior to transform into pupa, that comprises of salivary secretions or setae.
- In case of House fly, last larval stage skin undergoes hardening process and forms case called Puparium, inside which exarate pupa forms. This type of Pupa is known as Coarctate pupa.
- Mosquito pupa is termed as tumbler.
- It is an inactive stage even though floats freely under water surface showing jerking and tumbling motion. It takes oxygen via trumpets.