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In this chapter we will be dealing with

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

This is the Science and Art of management that deals with feeding, housing, breeding, cleaning, health care of common domestic animal for getting maximum benefits.

ANIMAL BREEDING

A group of organism that have similar characteristics, general appearance, features are said to belong to a common Breed. Animal breeding produces desired characters and is helping livelihoods, thus animal breeding is a boon to the society.

OBJECTIVES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

  • Improves growth rate
  • increase in production of egg, meat, milk.
  • Increase in resistance to disease.
  • Superior quality of organisms.
  • Discarding the recessive harmful genes.

METHODS OF ANIMAL BREEDING

There are two methods of Animal Breeding

  • INBREEDING
  • OUT-BREEDING
    • OUT-CROSSING
    • CROSS-BREEDING
    • INTER SPECIFIC HYBRIDIZATION

INBREEDING

  • When the breeding is between animals of the same breed for the consecutive 4-6 generations they are termed as Inbreeding.
  • Inbreeding increases Homozygosity.
  • Harmful recessive genes are exposed.
  • Harmful genes are eliminated by selection.
  • A superior female and a Superior male when mated give rise to superior progeny.

DRAWBACK

Continuous inbreeding reduces infertility and also productivity and this is known as Inbreeding depression. To overcome inbreeding depressing there is a method of Out-breeding.

OUT-BREEDING

It is the breeding between the unrelated animals. it may be between individual of the same breeds, but should not have common ansectors.

A. OUT-CROSSING

  • When their is mating of animals within the same breed but they should not have common ancestors on either side of the organism upto 4-6 generations.
  • The offspring produce by such cross is called Out-cross.
  • It is the best breeding method to overcome inbreeding depression.

B. CROSS-BREEDING

  • When superior male of one breed is mated with the superior female of other breed it is called as Cross-breeding.
  • A common example is hisardale, it is a new breed of sheep which is developed in Punjab by crossing Bikaneri ewes and Marino rams.

C. INTER SPECIFIC HYBRIDIZATION

  • When female and male of two different species are mated it results in a new progeny which is usually different from the parent species.
  • Example,
    • when a female horse is mated with a male donkey it result in Hinny.
    • when a female donkey is mated with male horse it result in Mule.
  • The offspring are sterile in nature.

CONTROL BREEDING EXPERIMENTS:

ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION

  • In this the semen of a superior male is collected and injected into the reproductive tract of the female species.
  • The semen can be used directly at the time or it can be stored and be used when required.
  • During normal reproduction, the male bull deposit million of sperms which goes waste and thus this method acts to save the high progeny sperm and use it in a better way, so artificial insemination is economical.
  • Through artificial insemination, there is also a chance to control disease upto a certain level.

SUPER OVULATION AND EMBRYO TRANSPLANTATION

  • Also known as Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology (MOET)
  • In this technique, hormones are injected in the cow so that it induces FSH hormones and superovulation.
  • The cow can now produce 6-8 eggs instead of 1 egg
  • The cow is artificially inseminated or mated and result in the process of fertilization.
  • After the formation of the Embryo at 8-32 cell stage, it is transferred to a surrogate mother.
  • This is helpful in producing high desired qualities of breed in a single time.

CATTLE BREEDS

The family of domestic cattle is Bovidae. There are two main groups of Bovidae,

  • Bos indicus
    • Also known as Zebu cattle
    • It is a humped cattle
    • Found in India and Afrcia.
  • Bos taurus
    • No humped cattle
    • Found in Europe and North America

The cattle breeds can be classified into three parts:

  • MILCH BREED
    • The cows of this breed produces good quality of milk
      • Gir
      • Sahiwal
      • Red sindhi
  • DROUGHT BREED
    • The bullocks of this breed can work better in fields but the cow do not produce good quality of milk.
      • Halikar
      • Malvi
      • Nageri
  • GENERAL UTILITY BREED (DUAL PURPOSE BREED)
    • The cows of this breed produce good quality of milk and the bullock are good in field, i.e. a good milch and drought breed.
      • Haryana
      • Ongole
      • Tharparkar

NEW BREED

Karan Swiss is a new breed which is obtained by crossing between Sahiwal cows and Brown Swiss Bull.

Dr. Kurein is called as the Architect of India’s Modern Diary Industry.

Smriti Kanchan

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