Memory is the ability to take the information and store it in the brain and then recall it when required. Without memory, we can’t learn anything. Memory is broken into three stages: –
Brain is the body organ which is situated in the skull. The brain is responsible for various mental processes, control of the body, and its functions. It is made up of two hemispheres- The Right Hemisphere and The Left hemisphere. The brain is comprised of billions of interconnected neurons and glia. All the parts of the brain are interconnected with each other to provide the foundation for our thoughts and behavior.
BRAIN DAMAGE AND AMNESIA
Brain Damage– Destruction or deterioration of brain cells due to any injury is termed as Brain Damage. Brain Injuries are of two types- Traumatic Brain Injury and Acquired Brain Injury.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) – It is caused because of an external force, which forces the brain to move inside the skull or damages the skull. It ultimately damages the brain. It is occurring because of the accidents.
Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) – It occurs because of the pressure on the brain at the cellular level. Pressure on the brain occurs because of tumors or any neurological illness or in the case of stroke.
Amnesia– Loss of memory because of brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma is known as Amnesia. Amnesia is also of two types- Anterograde Amnesia and Retrograde Amnesia.
Anterograde Amnesia- In this Amnesia, the ability to memorize new things is impaired or lost. It occurs because data is not transferring from short term memory to long term memory.
Retrograde Amnesia- In this Amnesia, a person’s pre-existing memories or knowledge is lost. He can learn and memorize new things but he totally forgot about his past memories.
When both the Amnesia occurs together, it is termed as Global Amnesia. Sometimes Amnesia occurs because of traumatic brain injury which is termed as Post- Traumatic Amnesia and Amnesia which occurs because of psychological factors is are termed as Psychogenic Amnesia.
Amnesia occurs because of the damage to the Hippocampus (it is the region of the brain which is located in the inner temporal lobe of the brain and it is directly associated with the memory which helps in storing the long term memories) and the related areas of the brain, which are used in encoding, storage, and retrieval of memories.