LEARNING AND MEMORY: – Learning and Memory are closely related concepts. Learning is acquiring the new knowledge, skill, values and behavior while Memory is the expression of what we have already acquired. Learning and Memory both depend on each other.

For Example: -We are learning a new language by studying it, but we are speaking it by remembering those words which are stored in our memory.


Learning is the part of Cognitive domain. Various Types of learning are as follows: –


  • Motor Learning: – Those activities which involve muscular coordination are termed as Motor learning.

For Example: – Walking, Running, Skating, Driving, Climbing and Dancing etc.

  • Verbal Learning: – Verbal learning involves the language we speak whether it is in words or gestures. We use various tools for communication like pictures, symbols, words, figures, sounds etc.
  • Concept Learning: – Thinking, Reasoning, Learning involves in the Concept Learning. This learning is useful for recognizing and identifying things.

For Example: – When we used to teach our child this is an Apple and Apple is a fruit, so usually, whenever a child sees an apple he always remembers that an apple is a fruit. It is termed as Concept Learning

  • Discrimination Learning: – Discrimination learning refers to learning the differentiation between things.

For Example: -Sound of Horns of various vehicles like truck, bus, bike, ambulance, car etc.

  • Learning of Principles: -There are various principles related to science, mathematics, grammar etc. These principles always show the relationships between two or more concepts.

For Example: – Newton’s Law, Correlation etc.

  •  Problem Solving: – Problem Solving involves thinking, reasoning, observation, imagination, generalization etc. This is the higher-order learning process. It helps in solving the various types of problems in life.
  • Attitude Learning: -Attitude directs our behavior. Attitude refers to a set of belief, emotions and our behavior towards a particular object, person or event. It depends on our life experiences and our upbringing. Our behavior may be positive or negative depends on our attitude.

For Example: – The attitude of a teacher towards her profession, students etc.


Classical Conditioning: –Classical Conditioning is a learning process in which an association is made between a previous stimulus and a stimulus that naturally evokes a response. Ivan’s Theory is based on pairing a stimulus with a conditioned response. He gave food to the dogs and rang the bell and saliva occurs. After some time he rang the bell without giving food to the dogs, but still, salivation occurred on its own. It means once an association made between the sound of the bell and dog then the sound of the bell alone can lead the response. It is one of the best examples of classical conditioning.

Operant Conditioning: – Operant conditioning is also a learning process in which the probability of a response occurring is increased or decreased due to boosting or punishment. Edward Thorndike coined the term “law of effect”. As per the law of effect, any behavior that is followed by pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated and any behavior followed by unpleasant consequences is likely to be stopped.

Observational Learning: –Observational learning is also a learning process in which learning occurs through observing others or imitating others.

For Example: – Children often learn through imitating their elders.


Memory is the ability to take the information and store it in the brain and then recall it when required. Without memory, we can’t learn anything. Memory is broken into three stages: –

Stages of Memory: –

  • Encoding: – When any information comes into our mind through the sensory system, it needs to be changed in our brain language so that it can be stored. Encoding is the process of receiving, processing and combining the information. Information can be encoded in three ways: Visual, Acoustic (sound), and Semantic.
  • Storage: – Storage is the second stage of memory in which we maintain information over a particular period of time. Our memory is stored in short-term memory or in long- term memory. 
  • Retrieval: -Retrieval means recalling the stored information. In simple words getting information from our brain storage.

Types of Memory: –

  • Sensory Memory: – Sensory Memory is the first stage of memory. Sensory memory takes the information through our senses and it lasts about 2 to 4 seconds. It is part of the perception process. It helps in storing information in short term memory. Three types of Sensory Memory are:- Iconic Memory (through visual senses), Echoic Memory(through auditory senses) and Haptic Memory (through a sense of touch).
  • Short-Term Memory: – Short term memory is known as Active Memory or Working Memory. It holds only 7+2 or 7-2 items. In this current information fades away after 58 seconds to 1 minute, but 100% information never fades away. Short-Term Memory converted into long Term Memory after rehearsal or practice.
  • Long-Term Memory: – Long Term Memory is the continuous storage of any information. It is a lifetime memory. It never fades away. It further divided into Explicit Memory and Implicit Memory.
    • Explicit Memory: – Explicit Memory is also termed as a Conscious Memory, which involves the facts, events and concepts to recall the information. Explicit Memory further divided into Semantic Memory and Episodic Memory.
    • Semantic Memory is the facts and concepts, which we learn from books and school. Episodic Memory is generally based on specific moments or episodes of our life. Our emotions and sensations are attached to those moments.  For example: Memory of a family trip.
    • Implicit Memory: – Implicit memory involves procedures for completing the actions. These actions develop with practice and after practice; these memories are assessed without conscious awareness. For Example: Driving a car, tie a shoelace, Dance moves on songs.

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