There are 12 basic domains on which the various cognitive theories and techniques are based as per modern world.
Cognitive Neuroscience: – Cognitive is the study of mind and Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. Psychologists try to find the connection between the human mind and the nervous system. Psychologists seeking an explanation of their findings from Neuroscientists and Neuroscientists explain the observation of findings to the cognitive psychologists with the help of the electrochemical process of the brain and nervous system.
Perception: – Recognition and Interpretation of the sensory stimuli are termed as perception. How we respond in a particular situation is depends on our perception. Perception depends on attention, pattern recognition, consciousness, and memory.
Pattern Recognition: – How do we understand the things in our life depend on pattern recognition. We are identifying the things with the help of our senses ear, eyes, nose, skin, and tongue. For Example: –During the time of lecture in a class we listen to the lecture, we shift our attention towards it, we connect with the lecture and figure out the related things towards it, so that we can understand it completely and memorize the things in a better way.
Developmental Psychology: – From childhood to adolescence to adults, human psychology develops continuously. No two persons are exactly alike in their thinking and working approach. Developmental Psychology always explains growth, change, and consistency in a life span. Thinking, Feelings, and Behaviors change with the period. For Example: – During childhood, a child loves to play with toys but during adulthood, he doesn’t like the same toys any more. Therefore our preferences change with time and with age.
Human and Artificial Intelligence: –Human Intelligence refers to mental qualities that consist of the ability to learn from experiences, an adaptation of new situations, learning new skills, understanding and handling the situations in different ways. While Artificial Intelligence built with the help of computer sciences. Scientists make the robot and try to imitate them with human behavior.
Representation of Knowledge: – Nowadays most people are educated. They have ample knowledge about their subject, career, life goals, or life. All the information is stored in their brains. But they represent their knowledge in a different way because of the learning, perception, and memory, etc. Everyone’s learning speed, perceiving power, and memory are different. Therefore everyone’s brain processes the information differently.
Imagery: –The images formed in our brain regularly are termed as Imagery. We always imagine so many things in our life and it creates an image in our mind too. For Example: – If we are thinking about the snowfall our brain starts thinking about the images of snow falling, it looks like we seeing the snowfall, but it is just our thought only. It is also new to Cognitive Psychology.
Language: – Language is the mode of expressing the knowledge with others. It is also an important part of cognitive psychology. Without language, people can’t share the information which is stored in their mind. Therefore language is the single way to communicate everything, whether it is in the way of gestural or through expressing in words.
Thinking and Concept Formation: – Thinking is also one of the important parts of cognitive psychology. Concept Formation is termed as accurately expressing the thinking. An ability of thinking and forming concepts is useful for transferring the information from our brain to others.
Attention: – In front of us various things happen simultaneously, but we focus our attention on a particular thing. People are very selective to put attention on a particular thing. Because the information in the environment is in access or abundance but everyone cannot be a part of everything, therefore they try to focus on one thing at a time. For Example –In a class, some students are studying with full dedication and others are just giggling and making noise. Those who are studying with full dedication mean they focused their attention on listening to the lecture, not on the noise.
Consciousness: – Another name of Consciousness is Current Awareness. In our minds, we are thinking in two ways consciously and subconsciously. We always think consciously with the help of our senses. For Example: –If you are checking your watch during a lecture, consciously you are checking the time but subconsciously you are thinking like oh it’s too late or wow only 15 min. left to over the lecture or today’s lecture is so boring or today’s lecture is fantastic etc.
Memory: – There are 3 stages of memory Sensory Memory, Short-term Memory, and Long term Memory.
- Sensory Memory is the first stage of memory. It lasts about 2 to 4 seconds. It is termed as Echoic and Iconic Memory also because it is based on our sensory system.
- Short term memory is known as Active Memory or Working Memory. In this current information fades away after 58 seconds to 1 minute, but 100% information never fades away.
- Long Term Memory is the continuous storage of any information. It is a lifetime memory. It never fades away.
These are the 12 Domains of Cognitive Psychology.