Have you ever wondered how people think about any information?? If Yes Let me tell you it is all based on Cognitive Psychology.        

Cognitive Psychology is related to our internal mental process. It is termed as a “Study of Mind”. It includes attention, thinking, perception, learning, knowledge representation, remembering, decision making, problem-solving, language, and memory about any information.

Explanation as follows:-


Attention comes first when we are going to think about any particular thing. Cognitive Psychology starts with our attention only. Anything we start doing every time it needs attention first.

For Example: – If a teacher is giving a lecture in class attention should be must at that time. Otherwise we are not going to understand anything clearly, till the time we do not shift our attention towards the lecture. 


Everyone’s thinking is different and then they perceive the things accordingly. We can say people who are thinking positively they always try to find a positive solution in a negative situation also. 

For Example: – If we are talking about the above example after attention students start thinking about the lecture and perceive the lecture as per their understanding.


As we all know everyone has different speeds of learning and remembering things. Pattern Recognition helps us in learning and remembering things. Sometimes people remember those events which happened 10 years ago but forgot about what they had eaten in breakfast yesterday. So it is all based on how we connect our thoughts.       

For Example: – As per the same example, After understanding the lecture students start learning and remembering what the teacher had taught to them. Based on their previous study, they start making a connection and try to remember the lecture. 


Decision Making and Problem Solving are based on our thought process. The way we make our decisions is based on how we perceive things and how we relate to them for solving any problem.

For Example: -If we are talking about reasoning in any competitive exams we are always trying to find the connections to solve the problem. Similarly this situation happens in real life also, we are trying to find the connections and then take the decision to solve the problem.


There are 3 stages of memory – Sensory Memory, Short-term Memory, and Long term Memory.

Sensory Memory is the first stage of memory. It lasts about 2 to 4 seconds. It is termed as Echoic and Iconic Memory also because it is based on our sensory system. 

Short term memory is known as Active Memory or Working Memory also. In this current information is fades away after 58 seconds to 1 minute, but 100% information never fades away.

Long Term Memory is the continuous storage of any information. It is a lifetime memory. It never fades away.

So all these are related to our mind process and the study of the mind is termed as Cognitive Psychology.

Everyone is dealing with their mental processes without any observation but we only start observing things when it fails to work. Failures of our mental processes cause many problems like frustrating, embarrassing, or sometimes even dangerous than that. These failures are the tools for the psychological analysis of our mental processes. 


There are Various Methods used by Cognitive Psychologists to explore how human thinks. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Methods are as follows:-

Experiments on Human Behavior: – Most of the experimenters do their research in a laboratory setting. They control as many aspects of the experimental situation. There are two types of variables:-independent variable and dependent variable. During experiments experimenters use a representative and random sample of the population of interest then do the experiment accordingly and find the result out of it.

Psychobiological Research: –In this research experimenters study the relationship between the mind and the body. Experimenters do their research on how we are thinking and how our body feels and reacts in the particular situation. For Example: – How alcohol impacts on the brain and as well as on the body.

Self-Reports, Case Studies and Naturalistic Observations:- Experimenters use self-reports, case-studies and naturalistic observations for their research purposes. Self- Reports are based on a particular individual’s cognitive process report, Case studies are based on the in depth studies of individuals and Naturalistic Observations are based on the observation of cognitive performance in everyday situations without any laboratory setup.

Computer Simulations and Artificial Intelligence: –In computer simulations experimenters programme their computers to imitate the human function or process. In Artificial Intelligence experimenters make the artificial models similar to the human cognitive functions. In this experimenters try to conduct various types of experiments like is it possible machine can convert into humans or they start functioning like humans mind??

These are few Research Methods used by the experimenters to conduct their various experiments.

Priyanka Sethia

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