Types of Ecosystem
Artificial categorization of ecosystem can be done as following of the giant ecosystem – the Ecosphere.
A) Natural Ecosystems:
Self- operated under natural conditions.
Natural ecosystems can be further classified as…
- Terrestrial- for example: Forest, Grassland, Desert, Natural Geysers etc.
- Aquatic- Further classified as freshwater & marine…
- Lotic (Running water): for example, spring, stream, river etc.
- Lentic (Standing water): for example, Lake, pond, pool, ditch, puddle, swamps etc.
- Marine- for example: Oceans, Seas, Estuary etc.
B) Man-made (Artificial) Ecosystems:
- Maintained artificially by man.
- Artificial energy addition & planned manipulations done by man disturb the nature’s own ecological balance.
- For example: Croplands of wheat, maize, rice, man-made CES etc.
- Modern lifestyle has just not affected the natural system but has created all-together a new arrangement known as Human-dominated technoecosystem.
C) Closed Ecological System (CES):
- It do not rely on matter exchange outside the system.
- Waste product produced by one species should be utilized by other species.
- For maintaining life: Carbon dioxide, Feces, Urine etc. must be converted into Oxygen, food & water.
- Must contain- Atleast one Autotrophic organism (Phototropic or chemotrophic, any), for example, Green Algae, which is widely used for the purpose.
- Man-made CES include: Biosphere 2; Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELissa); Bios-1, Bios-2, Bios-3; Space ecosystem in Space flights, space stations etc.
- Closed Ecosystem for entire planet is Ecosphere, which includes five primary spheres- Geosphere, Hydrosphere, Biosphere, Atmosphere & Magnetosphere.
Detailed – Major Types of Ecosystems of World
To be continued…