Types of Ecosystem

Artificial categorization of ecosystem can be done as following of the giant ecosystem – the Ecosphere.

Overview- Types of Ecosystems

A) Natural Ecosystems:

Self- operated under natural conditions.

Natural ecosystems can be further classified as…

  • Terrestrial- for example: Forest, Grassland, Desert, Natural Geysers etc.
  • Aquatic- Further classified as freshwater & marine…
  1. Freshwater-
  • Lotic (Running water): for example, spring, stream, river etc.
  • Lentic (Standing water): for example, Lake, pond, pool, ditch, puddle, swamps etc.
  1. Marine- for example: Oceans, Seas, Estuary etc.

B) Man-made (Artificial) Ecosystems:

  • Maintained artificially by man.
  • Artificial energy addition & planned manipulations done by man disturb the nature’s own ecological balance.
  • For example: Croplands of wheat, maize, rice, man-made CES etc.
  • Modern lifestyle has just not affected the natural system but has created all-together a new arrangement known as Human-dominated technoecosystem.

C) Closed Ecological System (CES):

  • It do not rely on matter exchange outside the system.
  • Waste product produced by one species should be utilized by other species.
  • For maintaining life: Carbon dioxide, Feces, Urine etc. must be converted into Oxygen, food & water.
  • Must contain- Atleast one Autotrophic organism (Phototropic or chemotrophic, any), for example, Green Algae, which is widely used for the purpose.
  • Man-made CES include: Biosphere 2; Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELissa); Bios-1, Bios-2, Bios-3; Space ecosystem in Space flights, space stations etc.
  • Closed Ecosystem for entire planet is Ecosphere, which includes five primary spheres- Geosphere, Hydrosphere, Biosphere, Atmosphere & Magnetosphere.

Detailed – Major Types of Ecosystems of World

To be continued…

Harjeet Kaur

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